August 1st, 1861
Baylor declares himself governor of Confederate Territory of Arizona
In Texas Baylor took up farming and ranching at Ross Prairie in Fayette County. In 1851 he was elected to the State Legislature, and two years later he was admitted to the bar. In September 1855 he was appointed Indian agent to the Comanches on the Clear Fork of the Brazos. He was dismissed in 1857, after accusing certain of the reservation Comanches of aiding their non-reservation-bound fellow tribesmen in raids on the frontier and feuding with his supervisor, Robert S. Neighbors. In the years that followed he traveled widely in North Texas preaching hatred of the Comanches and other Indians and attempting to have Neighbors replaced with someone more to his own liking. A man of considerable vigor and magnetism, he addressed mass meetings, organized a vigilante force of some 1,000 men, and even edited an anti-Indian newspaper, the White Man, published by H. A. Hamner at Jacksboro and later at Weatherford. In June 1860 Baylor led a band of frontiersmen in the defeat of a small party of Comanches in the battle of Paint Creek, to avenge the murder and scalping of a young white boy.
At Mesilla Baylor established the Confederate Territory of Arizona and proclaimed himself military governor in 1861. On December 15 of that year he was promoted to colonel. In response to a series of critical articles in the pro-Confederate Mesilla Times, he challenged the editor, Robert P. Kelley, to a fight and injured him so severely that he died a few weeks later. Preoccupied with the hostile Apaches of the region, Baylor led a raid deep into the mountains of Chihuahua and supposedly killed a large number of Apaches, although no official correspondence exists to prove this. In March 1862 he sent a letter ordering the extermination of the hostile Apaches in the area to Capt. Thomas Helm, who was guarding the Pinos Altos mines. When word of Baylor's controversial order reached Richmond, President Jefferson Davis removed him from civil and military command. In Texas Baylor fought as a private during the battle of Galveston on January 1, 1863, and beat Malcolm D. Graham in the election to the Second Confederate Congress. Two weeks before Lee's surrender Baylor was reinstated as colonel, but he did not see action.
After the war he moved to San Antonio, where in 1873 he competed unsuccessfully with Richard Coke for the Democratic nomination for governor. He dabbled in Greenback and Populist politics and in 1876, at the age of fifty-four, offered his services to the army during the Sioux War. In 1878 he moved to Montell, on the Nueces River northwest of Uvalde, and acquired a sizable ranch. He continued to be involved in violent confrontations and reputedly killed a man in a feud over livestock in the 1880s. He was not charged with murder, however, or prosecuted in any way. He died at Montell on February 6, 1894, and is buried in Ascension Episcopal Cemetery there.