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ANCESTRY ANTHOLOGY PREVIEW #6: Texas Missions and Settlements .....................................




Presentation on theme: "Missions and Settlements"— Presentation transcript:

1 Missions and Settlements
Chapter 5: Texas History

2 First Missions are Built
1682: the first permanent settlement was founded in Texas-Mission of Corpus Christi de la Ysleta.Spain built missions, presidios and towns in lands occupied by Native Americans.Presidios: military outpostsAlsonso de Leon led an expedition to destroy La Salle’s fort, but found it abandoned.

4 MissionsDe Leon led his troops northeast and met the Hasinai people, whom they called Tejas (friend).Angelina, a Hasinai woman, served as a guide and interpreter to the SpanishFather Damian Massanet founded a mission in East Texas called San Francisco de los Tejas, along the Neches River.

Mission San Francisco de la Espada

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from San Francisco de los Tejas)


Mission San Francisco de la Espada
Mission Espada Chapel2.JPG
The church of Mission San Francisco de la Espada.
Mission San Francisco de la Espada is located in Texas
Mission San Francisco de la Espada
Shown within Texas


Basic information


Location
San Antonio, Texas, U.S.


Geographic coordinates
29.317833°N 98.449968°WCoordinates: 29.317833°N 98.449968°W


Affiliation
Catholic (Roman Rite)


Country
United States of America


Architectural description


Architectural style
Spanish Colonial


Completed
Founded 1690


U.S. National Register of Historic Places


Added to NRHP
February 23, 1972; January 28, 1974


NRHP Reference no.
72001351; 74002324


Type
Cultural


Criteria
ii


Designated
2015 (39th session)


Reference no.
1466


State Party
United States


Region
Europe and North America

Mission San Francisco de la Espada (also Mission Espada) is a Roman RiteCatholic mission established in 1690 by Spain in present-day San Antonio, Texas, in what was then known as northern New Spain. The mission was built in order to convert local Native Americans to Christianity and solidify Spanish territorial claims in the New World against encroachment from France.[1] Today, the structure is one of four missions that comprise San Antonio Missions National Historical Park.

History[edit source]

Founded in 1690 as San Francisco de los Tejas near Weches, Texas and southwest of present-day Alto, Texas, Mission San Francisco de la Espada was the first mission established in Texas.

Three priests, three soldiers and supplies left among the Nabedache Indians. The new mission was dedicated on June 1, 1690. A smallpox epidemic in the winter of 1690-1691 killed an estimated 3,300 people in the area. The Nabedache believed the Spaniards brought the disease and hostilities developed between the two groups.

Drought besieged the mission in the summers of 1691 and 1692, and the Nabedache wished to get rid of the mission. Under threat of personal attack, the priests began packing their belongings in the fall of 1693. On October 25, 1693, the padres burned the mission and retreated toward Monclova. The party lost its way and did not reach Monclova until February 17, 1694.[2]

The mission was re-established in the same area on July 5, 1716 as Nuestro Padre San Francisco de los Tejas. The new mission had to be abandoned in 1719 because of conflict between Spain and France.

The mission was tried once more on August 5, 1721 as San Francisco de los Neches. As the Nabedache were no longer interested in the mission, and France had abandoned effort to lay claim in the area, the mission was temporarily relocated along the Colorado River in July 1730. Mission Tejas State Parkencompasses the original site of the mission.

The mission relocated to its current location in the San Antonio River area (coords 29.3177°, -98.4498°) in March, 1731 and was renamed San Francisco De la Espada. A friary was built in 1745, and the church was completed in 1756. The relocation was in part inspired by fears of French encroachment and need for more Missionaries to tend to San Antonio de Bexar's Indian population.[3] The Mission encountered great difficulties in presiding over the Indian population and experienced common rebellious activity.[4]

Several modern churches have been architecturally based on the design of this mission including St. Stephen's Episcopal Church in Wimberley, Texas, north of San Antonio.




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5 A Mission Abandoned San Francisco de Tejas soon failed
The Tejas people rejected Catholicism, and resented the Spanish as a result.Drought and diseases also killed many of the TejasOther settlements began to appear as Spanish saw a need for power in the claim for TexasMission San Juan Bautista: became the base for many expeditions whose aim was to establish more missions in east Texas.Provided grain, cattle and horses to missionaries on expeditions

7 France Threatens Again
France once again tried to claim land by the Mississippi in 1699.1699: a French expedition established a colony on the Gulf Coast at Biloxi in present day Mississippi.Louis de St. Denis was sent to negotiate the Rio Grande with the Spanish, but was arrested on his arrival.He tried to assure the Spanish that France had no intention of occupying East Texas.As a result, the Spanish viceroy and his council (advisors), ordered more missions with Spanish soldiers to protect them.All trade between the Spanish and French stopped.

8 East Texas MissionsSan Antonio was founded in order to bridge the distance between the Rio Grande to east Texas.Supplies arrived slowly and the trip was dangerousMartin de Alarcon helped build a permanent settlementFounded the Presidio San Antonio de BexarMission San Antonio de Valero was foundedThe mission chapel is now known as the Alamo

10 Defending the Missions
France and Spain went to war in 1719, and settlement of East Texas came to a stopMarques de San Miguel de Aguayo was ordered to organize a force to defeat the FrenchBuilt Nuestra Senora del Pilar de los AdaesBecame unofficial capital of Texas in 1722Set up a mission and presidio near the ruins of La Salle’s fort, until it was moved to the present day town on Goliad.Set up 9 missions, 2 villages and 4 presidios with the protection of over 500 Spanish soldiers.

12 San Saba Mission Fails1757 missionaries founded Mission Santa Cruz de San Saba, and soldiers built a presidio a few miles away.Wanted to Christianize the Native Plains peopleApaches often visited the mission and hoped it would provide protection from the ComancheEfforts to Christianize the plains people failedLacked supplies and enough people to survive in such a remote region.

13 Life on the MissionsSpaniards wanted to teach Native Americans their way of life.Children went to schoolPrayer in the morningWomen wove cloth, molded pottery or cookedMen learned blacksmithing or carpenterySpanish soldiers faced difficult and dangerous conditionsProtected missions and settlementsWanted to control the Native AmericansUsually poorly equipped

14 Important Settlements in Texas
San Antonio, Goliad, Los Adaes and Nacogdoches were the most important civilian settlements in Spanish Texas.San Antonio was the largest and served as the capital by 1722Landowners elected a city council called an ayuntamiento and a chief official called an alcalde.

15 Spanish Living in Texas
Population was made up of Spaniards, Native Americans, Mestizos and African AmericansMestizos were people mixed with Spanish and Native American heritageMost African Americans were free, with only a few enslaved at this pointTejano culture was becoming part of the Texas cultural landscape

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